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Emerging Infections

Source: Virus X by Frank Ryan, pgs 383-390

Emerging Viruses

Rift Valley Fever Virus, 1930
An influenza-like illness causing hundreds of thousands of infections in sheep, goats and cattle and, to a much lesser extent, hemorragic fever in humans.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, 1933
Wild birds/mosquitos
North America, from Canada to Florida, South America, and the Caribbean
Infection of the brain and central nervous system, mainly in children, with between 50 percent and 75 percent mortality.

Western Equine Encephalitis Virus, 1936
The Americas generally, also related viruses widely in Russia, Europe, Scandinavia, and New Zealand
Liss virulant disease, otherwise similar to Eastern Equine Encephalitis.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, 1938
Tropical and subtropical America
Massive epidemics among horses, with extension to humans. Illness in humans follows the pattern of encephalitis described above, but probably milder, with a high percentage of subclinical disease.

California Encephalitis Virus, 1943
Rodents, including rabbits/mosquitos
Western United States and Canada
Acute infection of the brain and central nervous system, usually in children. This was the forerunner of a number of related viruses, all causing a similar pattern of infection.

Hantaan Virus, 1950
Asia and Eastern Europe
The cause of Korean hemorragic fever. A potentially fatal disease in humans, leading to kidney failure.

Sindbis Virus, 1952
Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia
Fever with arthritis.

Mayaro Virus, 1954
Animal host uncertain/mosquitos
South America, particularly Brazil
Fever, rash, arthralgia, and arthritis. Alphavirus related to Chikungunya and Sindbis.

Chikungunya Virus, 1956
Probably primates/mosquitos
Tropical Africa and Asia
Fever with rash and crippling arthralgia and arthritis. Caused by an alphavirus of the same fammily as Sindbis and O'nyong-nyong.

Kyasanur Forest Virus, 1957
Rodent or bat/tick
Asia, originally India
A hemorragic fever caused by a flavivirus

Junin Virus, 1958
South America, originally Argentina
Hemorragic fever with high lethality.

O'nyong-nyong Virus, 1959
Animal host unknown/mosquitos
African savannah or tropical forest, originally Kenya
Explosive outbreaks of fever and severe joing pain.

La Cross Encephalitis Virus, 1960
Chipmunk or squirrel/mosquitos
Eastern United States
The most common encephalitis of the "California" group. Others include Snowshoe Hare (Showshoe hare/mosquitos found in Canada, Alaska and Northern United States), San Angelo (Origins unknown, Western United States), Tahyna (Domestic animals and rabbits/mosquitos, Europe), Lumbo (Origins unknown, East Africa), and Inkoo (Origins unknown, Finland and former USSR).

Ross River Fever Virus, 1960
Animal host uncertain, but may be mammal or marsupial/mosquitos
Australia and the Pacific
Fever, sever arthritis, and rash. An alphavirus disease, similar to O'nyong-nyong.

Oropouche Virus, 1961
Sloths and monkeys/midges
South America, especially Amazon basin
Major epidemics, with thousands of people infected.

Machupo Virus, 1966
South America, especially Bolivia
Hemorragic fever with high lethality.

Marburg Virus, 1967
Animal reservoir unknown, though infection contracted from primate
Germany, but the source of the virus was East Africa
Hemorragic fever with 30 percent lethality. Caused by a filovirus.

Igbo Ora Fever Virus, 1967
Animal host uncertain/mosquitos
Fever, rash and arthritis. Alphavirus related to Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong.

Lassa Virus, 1970
Major epidemics of hemorragic fever with 10 percent lethality, now endemic.

Parvovirus B19, 1974
Original source unknown but probably coevolving with humans
Global distribution
The cause of over 90 percent of the aplastic crises in children with sickle-cell anemia and other hemolytic anemias. Now also associated with fetal infection and some cases of sterility in women. Spread by respiratory route, causing febrile illnesses with rash in children.

Ebola Sudan Virus, 1976
Animal source unknown
Africa, originally Sudan
Hemorragic fever, caused by Ebola filovirus with 50 percent lethality

Ebola Zaire Virus, 1976
Animal source unknown
Africa, originally Zaire
hemorragic fever, caused by Ebola filovirus with 90 percent lethality.

Seoul Virus, 1977
Asia and most of Europe
Hemorragic fever with renal syndrome.

Human T-lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1), 1980
Original reservoir probably primates but now coevolving with people
Asia, notably Japan, Central Africa, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America
The cause of adult T-cell leukemia and of central nervous system disease.

Human T-lymphotrophic Virus-2 (HTLV-2), 1982
South American Primates
The Americas
The cause of hairy cell leukemia.

Jamestown Canyon Encephalitis Virus, 1983
White-tailed deer/mosquitos
North America
A virus of the Melao group, related to the "California" group. Recently 25 percent of young adults in Michigan were found to be seropositive. Substrains include South River (Animal and arthropod unknown, Northeastern United States and Quebec), Keystone (Animal unknown/mosquitos, Eastern United States), and Serra do Navio (Animal and arthropod unknown, Brazil).

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1, 1983 (HIV-1)
African primate, probably the chimpanzee
Human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-2 (HIV-2)
African primate
Mainly West Africa
A milder form of human AIDS. Almost identical genetic makeup to SIV, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus.

Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), 1986
Origins unknown, coevolving with people
The cause of pandemic rash and fever in children, Rosea subitum.

Hepatitis E Virus, 1988
Origins unknown, now coevolving with people
Tropical zones of Asia, Africa, and South America
The cause of epidemic human liver disease, previously classified as Non-A Non-B hepatitis, now discovered to be caused by a waterborne calcivirus.

Hepatitis C Virus, 1989
Virus first isolated from chimpanzee, suggesting primate origins
Transfusion related and sporadic outbreaks of liver disease.

Ebola Reston Virus, 1989
Animal reservoir unknown
Asia, notably the Philippines
Outbreak in monkey quarantine facility in the the United States; some species crossing to people who worked closely with the monkeys.

Guanarito Virus, 1991
South America
The cause of Venezuelan hemorragic fever.

Sin Nombre Hantavirus, 1993
United States, particularly the Southwest
Highly lethal disease, majority of cases in young people (Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome).

Sabia Virus, 1994
South America, originally Brazil
Sporadic cases of hemorragic fever.

Human Herpes Virus-8, 1995
Origins unknown
The cause of Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients.

Ebola Ivory Coast Virus, 1995
Origins unknown
Epidemic among chimpanzees that infected one human contact.

Emerging Bacteria

Borrelia burgdorferi, 1975
Lyme disease

Legionella pneumophilia, 1976
Legionnaire's disease

Cryptosporidium parvum, 1976
Acute and chronic diarrhea

Campylobacteri jejuni, 1977
Bowel infection

Staphylococcus aureus, 1978
Toxic shock syndrome

Escherichia coli 0157:H7, 1982
Hemorragic colitis; Hemolytic Uremic syndrome

Afipia felis, 1983
Cat scratch disease

Helicobacter pylori, 1983
Peptic ulcer disease

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 1985
Persistent diarrhea

Cyclospora cayatanensis, 1986
Persistent diarrhea

Vibrio cholerae 0139, 1992
7th pandemic of cholera

Bartonella henselae, 1992
Cat scratch disease

Beta hemolytic streptococcus, 1994
Flesh-eating bug

Emerging Protozoa

Encephalitozoon hellem, 1991
Conjunctivitis, disseminated disease

Encephalitiozoon cuniculi, 1993
Disseminated disease