Freud and Erikson theories of developmental stages
|Period (Age)||Freud's Stages||Erikson's Task or Crisis|
|Infancy (0-1)||Oral||Trust vs mistrust|
|Toddlerhood and early childhood (1-3)||Anal||Autonomy vs shame|
|Early childhood (3-6)||Phallic||Initiative vs guilt|
|Middle childhood (7-11)||Latency||Industry vs inferiority|
|Adolescence (12-19)||Genital||Identity vs confusion|
|Early adulthood (20-45)||Intimacy vs isolation|
|Middle adulthood (45-65)||Generativity vs stagnation|
|Late adulthood (65+)||Integrity vs despair|
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
|Stage||Age||Characteristics of Stage|
|Sensorimotor||0-2||The child learns by doing: looking, touching, sucking. The child also has a primitive understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Object permanence appears around 9 months.|
|Preoperational||2-7||The child uses language and symbols, including letters and numbers. Egocentrism is also evident. Conservation marks the end of the preoperational stage and the beginning of concrete operations.|
|Concrete Operations||7-11||The child demonstrates conservation, reversibility, serial ordering, and a mature understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Thinking at this stage is still concrete.|
|Formal Operations||12+||The individual demonstrates abstract thinking, including logic, deductive reasoning, comparison, and classification.|
Levinson's Theory of Human Development
|17-33||Novice phase of early adulthood|
|17-22||Early adult transition|
|22-28||Entering the adult world|
|33-45||Culmination of early adulthood|
|45-50||Entering middle adulthood|
|60-65||Late adult transition|
Common Infant Motor Reflexes
|Blinking||In response to a puff of air, the infant closes both eyes.|
|Babinski||In response to stroking the side of its foot, the infant twists its foot inward and fans out its toes.|
|Grasping||In response to an object pressed against its palm, the infant attempts to grasp the object.|
|Moro||In response to a shock or loud noise, the infant arches its back and throws its arms outward.|
|Rooting||In response to stroking its cheek, the infant turns its head toward the touch and attempts to suck|
|Stepping||In response to holding the infant so that its feet barely touch a surface, the infant "walks."|
|Sucking||In response to inserting a finger or nipple into its mouth, the infant begins rhythmically sucking.|
|Babkin||In response to stroking its forehead, the infant turns its head and opens its mouth|
|Plantar||In response to touching the ball of the foot, the infant curls its toes under.|
3 Types of learning - classical learning (Pavlovian), occurs by association when a stimulus that evokes a certain response becomes associated with a different stimulus that originally did not cause that response; operant conditioning (Skinnerian), learning occur through application of rewards, punishments; observational learning, achieved by observing and imitating others.
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligence three aspects: componential (critical aspect, ability to use internal inform-processing startegies when identif and thinking bout solve problem, incl eval results), experiential intelligence (insightful, ability to transfer learning effectively to new skills), contextual intelligence (practical, ability to transfer learning to new skills... import part of is tacit knowledge or savvy is ability to work system to one's advantage, often thought as "street-smart").
Moral development and judgement, Lawrence Kohlberg moral developm with three levels consisting of six stages... first level - preconventional morality, has to do with moral reasoning and behavior based on rules and fear of punishment (Stage 1) and nonempathetic self-interest (s 2), second l conventional morality, conformity & helping others (3) obeying law keeping order (4), postconventional (3rd l) accepting relative changable natur of rules laws (stage 5) and conscience-directed concern with human rights (6).
Three intimacys... physical intimacy (mutual affection, sexual activity), psychology intimacy (sharing of feelings and thoughts), social intimacy (having same friends enjoying same recreation)
Two types of intelligence, fluid intell - ability to think abstractly and deal with novel situations, crystallized intell - using learned info collected througho lifespan.
Source: "CliffsQuickReview Developmental Psychology"