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Developmental Psychology

Freud and Erikson theories of developmental stages

Period (Age)Freud's StagesErikson's Task or Crisis
Infancy (0-1)OralTrust vs mistrust
Toddlerhood and early childhood (1-3)AnalAutonomy vs shame
Early childhood (3-6)PhallicInitiative vs guilt
Middle childhood (7-11)LatencyIndustry vs inferiority
Adolescence (12-19)GenitalIdentity vs confusion
Early adulthood (20-45)Intimacy vs isolation
Middle adulthood (45-65)Generativity vs stagnation
Late adulthood (65+)Integrity vs despair

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

StageAgeCharacteristics of Stage
Sensorimotor0-2The child learns by doing: looking, touching, sucking. The child also has a primitive understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Object permanence appears around 9 months.
Preoperational2-7The child uses language and symbols, including letters and numbers. Egocentrism is also evident. Conservation marks the end of the preoperational stage and the beginning of concrete operations.
Concrete Operations7-11The child demonstrates conservation, reversibility, serial ordering, and a mature understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Thinking at this stage is still concrete.
Formal Operations12+The individual demonstrates abstract thinking, including logic, deductive reasoning, comparison, and classification.

Levinson's Theory of Human Development

AgeStage
17-33Novice phase of early adulthood
17-22Early adult transition
22-28Entering the adult world
28-33Age-30 transition
33-45Culmination of early adulthood
33-40Settling down
40-45Midlife transition
45-50Entering middle adulthood
50-55Age-50 transition
60-65Late adult transition
65+Late adulthood

Common Infant Motor Reflexes

ReflexStimulus/Action
BlinkingIn response to a puff of air, the infant closes both eyes.
BabinskiIn response to stroking the side of its foot, the infant twists its foot inward and fans out its toes.
GraspingIn response to an object pressed against its palm, the infant attempts to grasp the object.
MoroIn response to a shock or loud noise, the infant arches its back and throws its arms outward.
RootingIn response to stroking its cheek, the infant turns its head toward the touch and attempts to suck
SteppingIn response to holding the infant so that its feet barely touch a surface, the infant "walks."
SuckingIn response to inserting a finger or nipple into its mouth, the infant begins rhythmically sucking.
BabkinIn response to stroking its forehead, the infant turns its head and opens its mouth
PlantarIn response to touching the ball of the foot, the infant curls its toes under.

3 Types of learning - classical learning (Pavlovian), occurs by association when a stimulus that evokes a certain response becomes associated with a different stimulus that originally did not cause that response; operant conditioning (Skinnerian), learning occur through application of rewards, punishments; observational learning, achieved by observing and imitating others.

Adolescence
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligence three aspects: componential (critical aspect, ability to use internal inform-processing startegies when identif and thinking bout solve problem, incl eval results), experiential intelligence (insightful, ability to transfer learning effectively to new skills), contextual intelligence (practical, ability to transfer learning to new skills... import part of is tacit knowledge or savvy is ability to work system to one's advantage, often thought as "street-smart").
    Moral development and judgement, Lawrence Kohlberg moral developm with three levels consisting of six stages... first level - preconventional morality, has to do with moral reasoning and behavior based on rules and fear of punishment (Stage 1) and nonempathetic self-interest (s 2), second l conventional morality, conformity & helping others (3) obeying law keeping order (4), postconventional (3rd l) accepting relative changable natur of rules laws (stage 5) and conscience-directed concern with human rights (6).

Early Adulthood
Three intimacys... physical intimacy (mutual affection, sexual activity), psychology intimacy (sharing of feelings and thoughts), social intimacy (having same friends enjoying same recreation)
    Two types of intelligence, fluid intell - ability to think abstractly and deal with novel situations, crystallized intell - using learned info collected througho lifespan.

Source: "CliffsQuickReview Developmental Psychology"