Major European Wars
From Charles Murray's Human Accomplishment, pp334-335
Hundred Years' War. England and France, 1337-1453.
Civil war within the Holy Roman Empire, 1400-1410.
Intermittent wars among Milan, Venice, and Florence, 1402-1454.
Hussite Wars, mostly within Bohemia, 1419-1436.
War of the Poles and Teutonic Knights (Prussia), 1454-1466.
War of the Roses, within England, 1455-1485.
War between Denmark and Norway, 1493-1497.
The Italian Wars, major Continental powers and Britain, 1494-1527.
War between Denmark and Sweden, 1506-1513.
French Wars of Religion, 1562-1598.
Dutch War of Independence, Spain and the Netherlands, 1567-1593.
Wars between Sweden and Poland, 1600-1611 and 1617-1629.
War between Sweden and Russia, 1613-1617. 1632-1634.
Thirty Years' War, the major Continental powers, 1618-1648.
English Civil War, 1642-1646, followed by periodic political turmoil until the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
War between Venice and Turkey, 1645-1670.
War between England and the Netherlands, 1652-1654, 1665-1667, 1672-1674.
First Northern War, 1655-1660.
Franco-Allied War, France, the Netherlands, German principalities, 1672-1678.
War of the League of Augsburg, France, England, German principalities, 1688-1697.
Great Northern War, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Poland, 1700-1721.
War of the Spanish Succession, most of the Continental powers and Britain, 1701-1714.
War of the Quadruple Alliance, France, Britain, Netherlands, Spain, 1718-1720.
War of the Polish Successionn, German and Italian principalities, France, Spain, Poland, Russia, 1733-1738.
War of the Austrian Succession, the major European powers, 1740-1748.
War between Sweden and Russia, 1741-1743.
Seven Years' War, the major Continental powers and Britain, 1756-1763.
Russo-Austrian-Turkish War, 1787-1792.
War between Sweden and Russia, 1788-1790.
French Revolution, 1789-1792.
War of the First Coalition, the major Continental powers and Britain, 1792-1796.
Napoleonic Wars, the major Continental powers and Britain, 1796-1815.
Belgian War of Independence, Belgium and the Netherlands, 1830-1831.
The Revolutions of 1848, France, Austria, Italy, Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, 1848-1849.
Crimean War, Britain, France, and Russia, 1853-1856.
War between France and Austria over Lombardy, 1859.
Wars of the Italian Reunification (Risorgimento), the Italian principalities, 1860-1870.
Schleswig-Holstein War, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, 1864.
Seven Weeks' war, Austria, Prussia, Italy and Saxony, 1866.
Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871.
World War I, 1914-1918.
World War II, 1939-1945.
The list, long as it is, represents only a portion of all the European conflicts from 1400 to 1950. It omits all the wars exclusively among countries in Eastern Europe and Russia, one-battle wars such as the British defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, conflicts involving the major European powers that occured outside Europe (the American Revolution, for example), and the chronic Balkan wars pitting the Ottoman empire against Austria and Hungary. Some of the wars on the list lasted only a matter of weeks, but most of them were bloody and significant. Many of them involved armies and casualties of epic magnitude. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) cost an estimated eight million lives, of whom about seven million were civilians, and laid waste to large parts of Germany and Bohemia. Other obscure wars on the list involved multiple battles with casualties in the tens of thousands.