Tokugawa and Rome
Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class
Tokugawa Shogunate - 1600s after long pd unrest comes to power. Leader Tokugawa Iegasu, lasted to 1867, capitol Heia (Kyoto) to Edo (Tokyo). Alternate attendency for daimyo: had to spend every other year in Edo to control their power; under Tokugawa Japan stable/prosperous. culture: high-low class big divide, 1700s society rural -> urban, samurai thrived, Kabuki (elaborate dramas), poetry esp haiku popular, Noh dramas (stark about warriors courage etc), (entertainment textiles etc) women opps in cities
Geisha - trained from young, very beautiful, at tea houses does all cultural arts, "patron" ... "Memoirs of a Geisha"
- Geography: near center of Italy on seven hills near Tiger river close coast near ctr medit. agrarian, fishing, trading, creation myth of Romulus & Remus
- peoples there: Latins, Etruscans, Greeks. Latins farmers, shepards from Alps (1000bce) Etruscans native to N Italy skilled w/ metals, engineering, system of writing, used arches Greeks civ already influenced Rome, Greece had colonies 'round Italy, decline as Rome rise
- Early Republic: 600bce ruled by Etruscan king, last wuz tyrant (-> overthrown), vowed no king, so republic two classes - patricians (aristocratic landowners) and plebeians (common folk), balance power of patricians by creating assembly called tribunes. Wrote the Twelve Tables, basis of Roman Law. Established 2 consuls both comm. army & gov't, term one year, cant run again for 10 years, check each others power. Senate had 300 members (orig patricians, later also plebeians) terms for life resp for foreign & domestic policy. Land owners had to serve in army (to get office >= 10 years), armies divided into legions.
Rise of Rome: by 300bce controlled all Italy except Po Valley (Gaul territory). Many conquerees given citizenship w/o vote, most ally, serve in army, no formal ties, lenient rule key to success, ctr of medit made trade easy but dominant trading in Carthage.
Punic Wars: b/c Carthage's interf. in trading, 3 wars total. 264-241bce, 218 (hannibal led Carthage) to Battle of Zama. By 150bce Carthage no threat but sacked in 146bce (-> citizens made slaves)
Collapse of Republic: b/c gap rich & poor, slaves 1/3 pop, Gracchus brothers (reformers) killed, Rome descend into chaos