Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class
Italian City States - no strong ctr gov't, powerful families/city gov's authority smaller "states" first true examples modern secular state. Most powerful duchy of Milan, Florence, VEnice, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples. Northern Italy ruled by Milan, Florence. Milan ruled by Visconti family until 1447. Then (Francesco) Sforza seized power, sucessful b/c created centralized state, taxation generated lots w/o breaking ppl. Florence reigned over Tuscany, initially ruled by merchant oligarchy, but Cosimo de'Medici took control. Medici dominated Italian Renaissance b/c patroned arts, stratigically courted political alliances. Venice stable maritime city-state run by merchant-aristocratic oligarchy, internat'l known for trading wealth. Papal states politically controlled by popes. Naples feudal monarchy, poor. Besides these 5, smaller territories thrived: Mantua (Gonzaga family ruled), Ferrara (d'Este), Urbino (Montefelto). Statecraft - political power and how to apply it to state over long period of time, major person Niccolo Machiavelli. Idea from two sources: knowledge of ancient Rome, worries about Italy's problems at the time. Medieval polit theory stressed import of common good, ruler behave according to morality/principals of Christianity Machiavelli believed in the opposite as written in the Prince. Prince must understand human nature self-centered so politics not about morality, not deviate from good if poss but kno how to do evil if necessary. Influential founding modern secular politics, primary concern was for Italy's polit troubles. Later advocated republican form of gov't doubted possibility (Discourses). Renaissance Papacy - refers to line of popes end of Great Schism to beginning of Reformation. Julius II warrior pope! Responsible for building up Rome (St Peter's). Popes no dynasties, build revenue/power in one lifetime. Neopotism to gain power. Pope Sixtus IV 5 nephews cardinals. Pope Alexander II (Borja family) had kids (Lucretia and Cesare) Leo X son of a Medici, wealthy upbringing, patroned Raphael, Michelangelo etc. Though popes hardly spiritual leaders but patronage of arts unsurpassed.