Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class
John Calvin (1509-1564): (1534 french clergyman resigned & fled to Switzerland. Composed "The Institutes of the Christian Religion," he revised 4 times.) Written in Latin, translated into French and became (principal theo. text French, Scottish, Dutch, English protestant groups.) Geneva's govt tried to put his stuff to law 1536, he was run out but by 1541 he was back and stuff in law. (Calvinism led to Puritans in England and Presbyterian in Ireland & Scotland.)(Predestination important:) person's salvation/damnation decided at their birth. Each church 4 officers: ministers, teachers, elders, deacons. Believed bad kings/tyrants expression of God's wrath. Later commentaries on the Book of the Prophet Daniel justified disobeying rulers deny "Rights of God." Laid groundwork when Calvinists revolutions against Angelican, Catholic kings
Causes: spiritual renewal & institutional change, papacy & orthodox theology were challenged, wanted a return to simple practices of early apostilic church. Claimed bible, not heirarchy highest authority, challenged priest's ability to change eucharist. Martin Luther challenged papacy, ignited reform. Secular factors: wars, famines, plagues resulted heightened spirituality. Printing press.
Erasmus (1466-1536): humanist author, dedicated life to purifying Latin & Greek biblical texts. Used writ & humanistic ways to advocate a simple but more intense life modeled on Christ. Against superstitous, indulgences, relics, cults of saints. Wanted reform, peace, civility. Most famous work "In Praise as folly." True purpose of Christian life to imitate christ.
Italian Humanism (art, merchant class, the papacy, literature, intellectual life) vs Northern Humanism (tended to focus on the ethical content of the classical works) Plato, Aristotle, Plutorch, Seneca, Cicero vs early Church Fathers, complicated vs more simple, Northern create, spirit of reform, aka Christian humanists b/c preoccupation w/ religion
Erasmus again! "Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched" he wrote some stuff, came up w/ philosophies that laid foundations for the rest of Reformation. Dutch. Didnt focus on external aspects of religion, but inner spirituality. Edu in tradition of the "New Devotion" stressed ideal of imitating life of Christ. Wrote In Praise of Folly (1511) critized church harshly, very sexist. Believed could reform church thru moderation and education.
Martin Luther - born to peasant family, eventually miner father managed several mines so wealthy enough, went to study law. Caught in thunderstorm/struck by lightning, said it survived become monk. Major concern how an indiv can be saved. Init confess/penance all tyme still doubts about being saved. Superiors so concerned about extreme devotion sugg he go get doctorate in theology (in Wittenberg). After much careful Bible reading, said salvation can be attained by faith alone ("justification of faith"), and also Bible as sole authority (2 roots of reformation). Pope Leo X selling indulgences ("as soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"), Luther distressed so 95 theses (either posted or sent to pope, no1 knoz), pope responds "some drunken German who will amend his ways when he sobers up." Printing press got hold.
John Calvin - orig study law in France, but simple/straightforward conversion. 2nd generation reformer, ideas similar to Luther, esp justification by faith. But emphasized absolute power, sovereingty of god, predestination. Working hard to get what you want from Puritian from Calvinism (work ethic).
Lutherism off recognized in 1555, calvinism more austere as well as militant, both influential historically.