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The Neolithic Revolution and Cultural Constants
Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's World History I class, 30 August 2001
  1. Between 9000BCE and 6000BCE, the Mesolithic occurred
    1. domestication of dog (9000BCE)
    2. domestication of grains, spef. barley (9000BCE)
    3. sophisticated tools such as fish hooks
    4. clustering into small villages
  2. Around 6000BCE, neolithic revolution occurred; transit from gathering to producing
    1. attempts to control nature/environment, loss of unity with nature
    2. domestication of plants - einkorn,
    3. domestication of animals - spef sheep, cows, pigs
    4. creation of larger/more complex permanent settlements
  3. Around 4000BCE developments lead to full excavation
    1. invention of pottery & sundried bricks
    2. division of labor
    3. invention of writing
    4. invention of wheel
  4. Four main cultural constants
    1. Belief: Anything held to be true, right or important
      It is critical to note that belief dictates behavior
      Areas affected:
      1. Attitude toward the unknown
        1. Religious beliefs
        2. Religious practices (rituals)
      2. Values: What is important to the people
      3. Ethics: What is right or wrong in the culture
      4. Symbols: what visual images indicate its culture
      5. Arts and esthetic values:
        1. Art/Visual
        2. Music
        3. Dance
    2. Behavior: The way a group acts, responds and organizes itself
      Areas affected:
      1. Family and Kin
        1. Marriage and type of family groupings
        2. Child training and rites of passage
      2. Political organization
        1. Government
        2. Law Enforcement
        3. War and Peace
      3. Economics
        1. Technology
        2. Division of Labor
        3. Trade and Money
        4. Transportation
      4. Recreation
        1. Games and Sports
        2. Use of leisure time
    3. Language: The verbal, physical and/or written methods of communication of a group
      Areas affected
      1. Language: Spoken/Body
      2. Language: Written [note: not all cultures have written languages]
      3. Number systems
      4. Drama and Literature
  5. Artifacts: Anything made or used by humans
    Areas affected
    1. Food, clothing and shelter
      1. Food (methods of production and domestication)
      2. Clothing and Adornment
      3. Shelter and Dwellings
    2. Economics
      1. Technology
      2. Transportation
      3. Monetary system
For a culture to be considered a civilization, it must have:
- A surplus of food
- A division of labor
- Permanent cities (and all this implies!)