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Middle Ages, etc
Based on a handout from Mrs Tran's class
    Social and economic
    1. Feudalism - comprised of vassalage and the benefice
      1. benefice: also known as a fief, an estate (or parts of) owned by a lord
      2. vassalage (vassal): men who provide the lord with loyalty, fighting, protect the honor of, etc. for a benefice
        -those men who serve the lord will develop into a system of knights
    2. manorialism - landholding class of nobles and knights had other duties so could not take care of their fief so they had a dependent class of peasants
      1. peasants were provided protection in exchange for their freedom
      2. peasants would work land or other duties required
      3. there was a class of free peasants, but those who gave up their freedoms were called serfs
    3. feudalism were inextricably linked, especially in a largely agrarian society
    4. there were no rules and regulations to manorialism and the practice was varied in how much and how it was practiced
    Rise of urban areas, cities
    1. Although mostly agrarian, there was a revival in trade from 1000-1200CE
      1. expanded money economy
      2. due to better farming technology (better food production), some people's time were freed to pursue other things (rise in specialized artisans)
      3. some areas traded specialty items such as wool from England, iron from Scandanavia and Germany, luxury items from the East through Italy (Venice in particular, especially due to its central location), and wool cloth from Flanders (the great trade area in North Europe)
      4. commercial activity lead to development of towns; usually located near rivers and sources of protection
      5. towns were unique because relied on (but weren't a part of) agrarian society, but also a part of surrounding areas
      6. townspeople had own unique set of laws because were not serfs nor nobility; called burghers (Latinized later to be bourgeoisie)
    Decline of church and reform
    1. power of popes ruled supreme in affairs of the church and consolidated much land in central Italy as the Papacy States
      1. but fragmentation made it diffcult to rule everywhere so many popes relied on noble families of specific areas for loyalty and protection (this is how many Italian families rose to so much pwer as to control the papacy later)
      2. the monastic ideal was just that, an ideal - reality was messy
        1. church was involved in land disputes/corruption
      3. two major trouble spots for church:
        1. celibacy was not enforced amongst clergy
        2. simony: selling church offices to the highest bid
      4. reforms to problems:
        1. the Cluniac Reform: monastery in Cluny (France) that brought back monastic ideals (enforced by a truly non-secular environment meaning no one from the secular realm had no say in running of monastery)
        2. Investiture controversy: Pope Gregor VII wanted to reform Church by giving pope authority over all of Christendom and to eliminate non-church officals power of appointing church officials