Three Early Civilizations and the Pre-Socratics
Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class
Early Civ 1: Minoan Crete (2000-1450 BCE)
Bronze Age, rich & prosp on Crete, evid. for strong navy (little fortif) perhaps commercial sez empire (evid Egypt prod & minoan in Egypt) non-Greek speaking ppl, great palace complex at Knossous with rich & elaborate rms, frescoes, pottery, art, jewelery, wine & grain storage. Around 1450BCE, perhaps b/c invasions by mainland Greeks known as Mycaneans, empire collapsed.
Early Civ 2: Mycaneans (1600-1100 BCE)
IndoEurop from ctr Europe. Known 4 fortif palace complexes, powerful monarchies in Mycanca, Pylos, Thebes, p'hps loose red. Royals -> tholos tombs (beehive shape). Free ciz in hillsides (pesant, artisans, serfs, slaves), Linear B (early Greek) writing, expansive comm comm networks, warrior ppls (Homer's epics 'bout 'em), destroyed by Dorians.
Early Civ 3: Dorians
Not much known b/c little writing, no intellectual, "Dark Ages," lots migrations, began to go to coasts Asia Minor, islands, across Aegean Sea, new type pottery (eco besides farming), adopt Phoenician alphabet. Towards end Homer (Illiad & Odyssey)
- before Socrates
- belonged to all diff types of schools
- most Presocratics were concerned with the order/structure of phys. world, some were cosmological
- First to move away from mythos
- poetic literature for writings
- Ionian School (Anaxmander "indefinate," Thales "water," Anaximenes "air") (Milesian school) What is the substance of all things
- Pythagoras: "religious" & mathematical - purifying soul with strict rules ess natur of all things is number
- Xenophanes: believed in 1 God -> the mind
- Heraclitus: p'raps most important b4 Socrates, constant change that unifies the universe, opposing forces, change transcends all, 'You never step in the same river twice'
- Parmenides: believed that state of being was unchanging & unmoving change was no base for reality through reason & whats already there can know truth
- Zeno: student of "e," paradoxes; logically impossible the half-half-half arrow
- Empodocles: tried to combine Parmen & Herac. unchanging was air water earth & fire in changing univ
- Anaxagoras: all things are made of small partic. shaped Nous (the mind)
- Sophists: "those with wisdom" teachers for hire. Emphasize ethics justice, virtue - taught rhetoric, debate, law & politics