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The Crusades
Based on notes from Mrs Tran's class

means holy war against infedels/nonbelievers esp were against muslims (superior society)

First Crusade
Alexius I - Saljuk Turks, requests (mostly financial) aid to get rid of from Urban to hire mercanaries. Pope Urban II responds by leading an army himself. Peasants go into religious frenzy. Peter the Hermit rallies peasants. Then they were sent to Asia Minor, slaughtered (the Peasant's Crusade).

Pope Urban then actually went for professional soldiers (10000 infantry, several thousand cavalry, mostly French. Not fight for God, for selves mostly. Reached Constantinople in 1097, leader afraid since actually professional made them swear allegiance to him. Reached Antioch in 1098, Jerusalem reached June 1099. 5 wk siege. Killed all muslims incl women and children hiding in Holy Sites. After capture of Palestine, it was split into 4 feudal states.

Second Crusade: 1147 - 1149
Muslimsm begin to strike back
Edessa was first of 4 Latin kingdoms to be recaptured
After Edessa was recaptured there was another call for crusades
Seemed doomed to fail -> not well organized & couldnt cooperate
Noone could cooperate -> Byzantines, French, Jerusalem
Total failure

Third Crusade
Reaction to fall of Jerusalem to Muslims (October 1187)
Lead by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
Richard I the Lionhearted of England, Philip II Augustus of France
Frederick was very sucessful but then drowned in a river
English, French came by boat got coastal cities quickly
Philip went home, Richard negotiated to allow pilgrims free access to Jerusalem

Knights Orders
An important part of military force in defending Latin kingdoms
Product of religious enthuisiam that came with the Crusades
Military Monastic orders combined monk and warrior
Knights of Temple
French knights took religious oath & served as escorts for pilgrims to Jerusalem
Known as Templars, in 1128 officially recognized by pope as a monastic order
In addition to monastic vows took 4th vow to help & defend people on pilgrimage
Knights of St John of Jerusalem
helped people in hospitals, sick
4th vow was to care for sick, known as Hospitallers
Both orders became very wealthy, both given land in Palestine by kings of Jerusalem, came to gain land in europe, provided about 1000 knights to defend Jerusalem

Effects of Crusades
Little long term effects (except castles to exchange of culture)
Most influential in Sicily to Spain (easy access of trade), enhanced trade in general, many societys were helped b/c people were moved that would have fought
Growing wealth in pop & wealth made crusades possible