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Chinese Philosophers
Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class

Confucius (Kong Fuzi) c. 551-479 BCE

    Lun Yu - the Analects
    born in Lu
    Known for 'wise sayings' - proverbs used to teach ppl about nature, world, human behavior
    father died when 3, lived in poverty: some jobs included keeper of market, farm worker, worked for governor
    Married at 19, 1 son 2 daughters
    Got a good education
    Mom died, after mourning started travelling
    Said ppl had lost their moral standards, wanted to return to high morals of former generations
    Had school, taught many years - meanwhile his disciples went out to all China
    The Golden rule, practice what you preach, power of example
    Appointed to magistrateial positions - sucessful rule, neighbor, ruler, had conf. ticked out b/c afraid he was too powerful
    His teachings so advanced used in education since then
    Teachings: love others, honor parents, do right not best for you, Golden Rule, rule by moral example
    Never wrote anything, all written by disciples
Laozi (Lao-Tzu) c. 6th century BCE
    Daoism - only indigeous relig of China
    Not know if wrote own books or when born
    2 books: Lao-Tzu, Tao Te Ching
    Action through nonaction
    To understand & master oneself
    Daoism - Religious life, freedom, escape, spontaneous, nat'l order of things
Mozi (Mo-Tzu) c. 470-439 BCE
    Lower class - servant
    Agreed with Confucianism mostly, didn't like confucious, tho
         Dis on elaborate funerals/rituals
    Agreed with Xia dynasty traditions
    Died & school split into 3
    10 Thesis' was famous for
    universal love, should conform to superiors, moderation, honor heaven, honor the spirit, condemnation of fate music w/o reason
    useful, pragmatic activity only
    rank & file within family
Mencius (Mengzi) c. 372-289 BCE
    Xunzi's enemy - idealist
    humans are inherently good
    Only use law as a last resort
    Education is incredibly important
    Edu & ritual will bring out good in ppl
Zhuangzi c. 369-286 BCE
    Daoism - dao is everything, lots of philosophy in common w/ Tao, you should ignore others and just follow the way of the universe
    worked on tree farm
    very learned
    52 essays in book Zhuangzi (completed after death)
    "Perfect Man" referred to in later dynasties
Hui Shi (Yi Zhi) c. 380-235BCE
    same school as Gongsun Long, friend of Xunzi
    studied relativity of language
    Reality cannot have distinctions, since everything is relative
    Opposites of the elements
Xunzi (Hsung-Tzu) c. 300-235BCE
    Realist - enemy Mencius
    Evil/not moral people
    Society should offer education so people can become good
    Developed new form of Confucianism
    Heaven not realm, just another part of nature
    32 chapter book
    Things cannot happen without reason
    Flatter leading ppl bad, education is leading w/ good
    Gentleman - easy to know but hard to become acquainted with
    Teach the 'bad' to be 'good'
Gongsun Long (Kung-Sun Long) c. 320-250BCE
    A white horse is not horse
    color makes difference b/c yellow or black horse will not do

    GL & HS (School of Names)
    used paradoxes and counterintuitive logic to prove everything cant exist
    No moral agenda - focus is to find definitions/names of reality
    Looking for fundamental nature of reality, not bothering with political or natural philosophy

Zou Yan (Tsou Yen) c. 305-240BCE
    Little known about personal life
    5 elements - earth, wood, fire, metal, water; everything in universe b/c of those, caused all cosmic changes, ex dynasties & seasons
    I Ching fortune telling - open to interpretation
    Introduced Yin(female)-Yang(male)
    Five Phases school (founder of) aka Ying Yang Chia
    Never completely in balance, Yin and Yang are fluid
    Not absolute - Yin & Yang complementary
    "Somethings are always better, some are always worse"
Han Fei(zi) d.233BCE
Chinese Buddhism
    Mahayana - 1st century AD
    More liberal than theravedic buddhism
    "Greater Buddhism" also Tibet & Japan
    Bodhissatva - stay to teach
    Hoy Toy - big buddha, lots of buddhas
    Way of life
Triangle: China in center, with Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism around outside and connected by lines