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Caesar and beginnings of Empire
Based on notes taken in Mrs Tran's class

Rise of Caesar - pd of chaos, 2 gen's gained power (Gaius Marius & Lucius Cornelius Sulla); start civil war, Julius Caesar brings order. 60BCE Caesar joined Crassus (patrician) & Pompey (general) to form triumvirate. One year consul then governor of Gaul. Conquers all of, gains popularity. Pompey threatned by so orders disbanded. Caesar marches w/ troops to home. Pompey flees, Caesar becomes dictator c. 44BCE for life w/ support from army & masses. Caesar's Role - absolute rule, gave citizenship 2 many ppls, created jobs 4 poor w/ public buildings, new colonies, inc. army pay, popular many feared his power so Marcus Brute & Gaius Cassius stabbed him to death in Senate < 1 yr after come to power. Post-Caesar - 3 his supporters crushed enemies, brought order to Rome. 2nd triumvirate in 43BCE. Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus. 31BCE Octavian defeated Mark Antony & Cleopatra at Battle of Actium. Octavian -> Augustus tries to restore Republic, sole leader. "All roads lead to rome" 27BCE to 180CE was Pax Romana. Extent at height 90% agrarian, mostly locally, luxery foods traded for, standard currency was "denarius," trade networks all way to China, India, sophisticated road system, empire drew military from different provinces, Roman culture often spread by army. Notable Roman emperors: Augustus (most competent, built public buildings, civil services, set up governors, created imperial cult, wanted gravitas for Rome), Tiberius (14-37CE -> uneventful, stable rule), Caligula (37-41CE, Tiberius' grandnephew, mentally unstable, wanted to make horse consul), Claudius (41-54CE, partially paralyzed, uneventful, stable rule), Nero (54-68CE, to power @ 16, freely killed people, loved arts so ignored affairs of state ex lost support of military, very extravagant, set fire to Rome & blamed Christians. Those were Julio-Claudians. In 69CE Vespasian created another dynasty Flavians, not aristocratic. Five good emperors: embodied Pax Romana, gravitas. Set up more administration, extensive building, extended civil service, gave aid so poor educate children. Nerva (96-98), Trajan from Spain (98-117), Hadrian T's 2nd cousin (117-138), Antoninus Pius (138-161), Marcus Aurelius (161-180)