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Spain: Rulers and Monarchs
From A Traveller's History of Spain, fifth edition p245-252

Visigothic Rulers

Under pressure from the Huns some 200,000 Germanic tribesmen invaded Roman Hispaniae in the autumn of 409AD. The Suebi under Hermeric settled in the north-west and were later reduced (584) to the authority of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo.

The rest of the Iberian Peninsula was part of the Kingdom of Toulouse until 507, when Clovis I of the Franks forced out the Visigoths from south-eastern France. In 554 Athanagild moved his Court to Toledo.

Gesaleic: 507-510
Athanagild: 551-567
Leovigild: 572-586
Reccared: 586-601
Swinthila: 621-631
Recceswinth: 649-672
Wamba: 672-680
Evigio: 680-687
Egica: 687-702
Witiza: 700-710
Roderic: 710-711

Muslim Spain

al-Andalus was governed from 711 to 756 as a province of the Emirate of Ifriqiya (North Africa), part of the Umayyad Empire of Damascus:

Tariq ben Ziyad: 710-12
Musa ben Nusayr: 712-714
Abd al-Aziz ben Musa: 714-6

Yusuf ben Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri: 747-756

Abd al-rahman I: 756-788
Hisham I: 788-796
al-Hakam I: 796-822
Abd al-Rahman II: 822-852
Muhammad I: 852-886
al-Mundhir: 886-888
Abd Allah: 888-912
Abd al-Rahman III: 912-929

Abd al-Rahman III: 929-961
al-Hakam II: 961-976
Hisham II: 976-1009 (al-Mansur, his all-powerful minister, governed in his name until 1002 and his son after him)
Muhammad II: 1009
Sulayman: 1009-1010
Muhammad II: 1010
Hisham II: 1010-1013
Sulayman: 1013-1016
Alí ben Hammud: 1016-1018
Abd al-Rahman IV: 1018
Al-Qasim ben Hammud: 1018-1021
Yahya ben Alí ben Hammud: 1021-1023
al-Qasim ben Hammud: 1023
Abd al-Rahman V: 1023-1024
Muhammad III: 1024-1025
Yahya ben Alí ben Hammud: 1025-1027
Hisham III: 1027-1031


From 1031 to 1110 when the Almoravids from Marrakesh restored political unity to al-Andalus, the Caliphate of Córdoba broke up into twenty-four separate territories.

Yusuf ben Tasufin: 1061-1106
Alí ben Yusuf: 1106-1143
Tashufin ben Alí Yusuf: 1143-1145
Ibrahim ben Tashufin: 1145
Isahq ben Alí: 1145-1147


From 1147 to 1172 there were eleven petty kingdoms which gradually fell under the domination of the new masters of Marrakesh, the Almohads.

Muhammad ben Tumart: 1121-1128
Abu Muhammad Abd al-Mumin: 1128-1163
Abu Yaqub Yusuf I: 1163-1184
Abu Yusuf Yaqub: 1184-1199
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad: 1199-1213
Abu Yaqub Yusuf II: 1213-1223
Abdalwahid al-Makhlu: 1223-1224
Abu Muhammad Abdallah al-Adil: 1224-1226
Yahya al-Mutsam: 1226
Abu-l-Ala Idris al-Mamun: 1226-1231
Abu Muhammad Abdalwahid al-Raschid ibn al-Mamun: 1232-1242
Abul-Hasan Alí al-Said al-Mutatid: 1242-1248
Abu-Hafs Umar al-Murtada: 1248-1266
Abu-l-Ala al-Wasiq: 1266-1268

Abu-Abdallah Muhammad I: 1238-1272
Abu-Abdallah Muhammad II: 1272-1301
Abu-Abdallah Muhammad III: 1301-1308
Abu-l-Djuyusch Nasr ibn Muhammad II: 1308-1313
Abu-l-Walid Ismail I ibn Faradj: 1313-1324
Muhammad IV: 1324-1332
Abu-l-Haddjadj Yusuf I: 1332-1354
Muhammad V: 1354-1358
Abu-l-Walid Ismail II: 1358-1359
Abu Said Muhammad VI: 1359-1361
Muhammad V: 1361-1390
Abu-l-Haddjadj Yusuf II: 1390-1391
Muhammad VII: 1391-1407
Abu-l-Haddjadj Yusuf III: 1407-1423
Muhammad VIII: 1423-1427
Muhammad IX: 1427-1429
Muhammad VIII: 1431-1444
Muhammad X: 1444-1445
Sad al-Mustain ibn Alí: 1445-1446
Muhammad X: 1446-1453
Sad al-Mustain ibn Alí: 1453-1462
Abu-l-Hasan Alí ibn Sad: 1462-1482
Muhammad XI (Boabdil): 1482-1483
Alí: 1483-1485
Muhammad XII: 1485-1486
Alí: 1485-1486
Muhammad XI (Boabdil): 1486-1492

Granada surrendered to Isabel and Fernando on 5 January 1492.

Northern Domains

While al-Andalus declined politically and militarily into a number of weak principalities, easy prey to ambitious warriors from the north, Christian Spain started as a motley array of family fiefdoms along the Cantabrian coast and the Pyrenean border. It was only when Muslim fragmentation allowed them to expand southwards that the northern seigniories and counties began to define themselves teritorrially and politically against the Muslims as well as against one another.


Fernando I de Castilla (1035-65) and León (1037-65)
Sancho II de Castilla: 1065-72
Alfonso VI de León (1065-1109) and Castilla (1072-1109)
Urraca: 1109-26
Alfonso VII: 1126-57
Sancho III de Castilla: 1157-8
Alfonso VIII de Castilla: 1158-1214
Fernando II de León: 1157-88
Alfonso IX de León: 1188-1230
Enrique I de Castilla: 1214-17
Fernando III de Castilla (1217-52) and León (1230-52)
Alfonso X: 1252-84
Sancho IV: 1284-95
Fernando IV: 1295-1312
Alfonso XI: 1312-50
Pedro I: 1350-69
Enrique II de Trastámara: 1369-79
Juan I: 1379-90
Enrique III: 1390-1406
Juan II: 1406-1454
Enrique IV: 1454-74
Isabel I: 1474-1504
Juana I and Felipe I (King-Consort): 1506-8

Ramiro I: 1035-63
Sancho I: 1063-94
Pedro I: 1094-1104
Alfonso I: 1104-1134
Ramiro II: 1134-7

Petronila I of Aragón and Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona: 1137-62
Alfonso II: 1162-96
Pedro II: 1196-1213
Jaime I: 1213-76
Pedro III: 1276-85
Alfonso III: 1285-91
Jaime II: 1291-1327
Alfonso IV: 1327-36
Pedro IV: 1336-87
Juan I: 1387-95
Martín I: 1395-1410
Interregnum: 1410-2
Fernando I de Trastámara: 1412-16
Alfonso V: 1416-58
Juan II: 1458-79
Fernando II and V de Castilla by marriage to Isabel I: 1479-1516

Hispanic Rulers

Carlos I: 1516-1556
Felipe II: 1556-98
Felipe III: 1598-1621
Felipe IV: 1621-65
Carlos II: 1665-1700

Felipe V: 1701-24
Luis I: 1724
Felipe V: 1724-1746
Fernando VI: 1746-59
Carlos III: 1759-88
Carlos IV: 1788-1808
Fernando VII: 1808
José I: 1808-1813
Fernando VII: 1814-1833
María Cristina, Regent of Spain during Isabel II's minority
Isabel II: 1843-1868

1868: The 'Septembrina' Revolution

Francisco Serrano (Duque de la Torre): October 1868 to June 1869
Juan Prim (Marqués de los Castillejos): June 1869 to December 1870
Juan B. Topete (Admiral): December 1870 to January 1871

Heads of Government
Francisco Serrano: January to July 1871
Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla: July to October 1871
José Malcampo: October to December 1871
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta: December 1871 to May 1872
Francisco Serrano: May to June 1872
Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla: June 1872 to January 1873

Estanislao Figueras: February to June 1873
Francisco Pi y Margall: June to July 1873
Nocolás Salmerón: July to September 1873
Emilio Castelar: September to December 1873

Heads of the Provisional Government:
Francisco Serrano: January to May 1874
Juan de Zavala: May to September 1874
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta: September to December 1874

Restoration of the Bourbon Monarchy

Alfonso XII: 29 December 1874-1885
María Cristina, Regent: 1885-1902
Alfonso XIII: 1902-1931

Miguel Promode Rivera: 1923-1930
Dámaso Berenguer: 1930-1931
Juan Bautista Aznar: February to April 1931

Head of the Provisional Government:
Niceto Alcalá Zamora: April to October 1931
Niceto Alcalá Zamora: December 1931 to April 1936
Diego Martínez Barrio: April to May 1936
Manuel Azaña: October 1931-September 1933
Alejandro Lerroux: September to October 1933
Diego Martinez Barrio: October to December 1933
Alejandro Lerroux: December 1933-April 1934
Richardo Samper: April to October 1934
Alejandro Lerroux: October 1934-September 1935
Joaquín Chapaprieta: September to December 1935
Manuel Portela Valladares: December 1935-February 1936
Manuel Azaña: February to May 1936
Santiago Casares Quiroga: May to July 1936
Diego Martínez Barrio: 19-20 July 1936
José Giral: July to September 1936
Francisco Largo Caballero: September 1936 to May 1937
Juan Negrín: May 1937-February 1939

MILITARY UPRISING (17-18 July 1936)
President of the National Defense Council:
General Miguel Cabanellas: 23 July to 30 September 1936

General Francisco Franco Bahamonde:
Head of State and Armed Forces: 1 October 1936-20 November 1975

Presidents of the Council of Ministers:
Generalísimo Franco: 30 January 1938-11 June 1973
Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco: 8 June to 20 December 1973
Carlos Arias Navarro: 3 January 1974-20 November 1975

King Juan Carlos I of Spain: 22 November 1975- Heads of Government:
Carlos Arias Navarro: 4 December 1975-June 1976
Adolfo Suárez González: 3 July 1976-29 January 1981
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo (UCD): 21 February 1981-27 October 1982
Felipe González Marques (PSOE): 28 October 1982-3 March 1996
José María Aznar (People's Party): 3 March 1996-