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Spain: Chronology of Major Events
From A Traveller's History of Spain, fifth edition p253-258


c. 1100Foundation of Gades (Cádiz) by Phoenicians
c. 1000Arrival of Celts in the Iberian peninsula
c. 650Carthaginians settled in Ebusus (Ibiza)
c. 600Tartessos, west of Gades, important cultural centre in the western Mediterranean
550-500Greek traders found Emporion (Empúries) and Hemeroskopeion (Denia)
535Destruction of Tartessos
241First Punic War
228-7Hadrubal founds Carthago Nova (Cartagena)
219Sacking of Saguntum by Hannibal
206Roman victory over Carthaginians at Ilipa (Alcalá del Río)
Roman legions found Italica (Sevilla)
202Roman Victory over Carthaginians at Zama (Carthage)
Roman Hispania
197-5Hispania Citerior and Ulterior
149-6Third and Last Punic War. Destruction of Carthage
147-39Celtiberian Viriathus' uprising against Rome
133Fall of Numantia: the last bastion of Celtiberian opposition to Roman rule
27Further division of Hispania into three provinces: Baetica, Lusitania and Tarraconensis
26-24Foundation of Caesar Augusta (Zaragoza) and Emerita Augusta (Mérida), capital of Lusitania, by Emperor Octavius
98Trajan (98-117), first Spanish-born Roman emperor
170-3Lusitanian rebellion against rome; general disruption throughout Roman Empire
235-97Collapse of Roman authority; Hispania for herself in the face of growing pressure from Germanic tribes (Franks) in the Tarraconensis
284Division of Roman Empire into east and west
305First Christian Bishops' Conference at Iliberris (Granada)
312Western emperor Constantine embraces Christianity as the state religion of Rome
370The Huns make their first appearance in the west
Hispania Gothica
409Hispania invaded by Vandals, Suebi and Alans
419Establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom of Tolosa
429Vandals move from southern Spain to Africa
507Alaric II defeated and killed by Franks at Vouillé. Visigoths reduced to the Iberian Peninsula
549-621Byzantium occupies south-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands for the Eastern Roman Empire
554Toledo becomes capital of the Visigothic Kingdom of Spain
585The Suebi reduced to the north-west
587-9Reccared's conversion to Roman Catholicism as the state religion of the Visigoths
654Recesswinth's Forum iudiciorum
681Codex Euricus
al-Andalus (Muslim Spain)
711-13Muslims defeat Roderic, 'the last Goth,' and occupy Spain. Córdoba, their first capital from 716
756Establishment of the Emirate of Córdoba
785Start of the building of the Mosque
929Abd al-Rahman III proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba
1002Death of al-Mansur: the end of Muslim hegemony in the Iberian Peninsula
1031The Caliphate of Córdoba breaks up into Taifa Kingdoms
1049Building of the Aljafería Palace in Zaragoza
1085The Muslim Kingdom of Toledo falls to the Christians
1086Almoravids reassert Muslim military rule in central and eastern Spain
1147End of Almoravid rule and new break-up of al-Andalus into Taifa kingdoms
1147-1212The Almohads restore political unity to al-Dndalus
1195Defeat of Alfonso VIII of Castilla at Alarcos
1212Las Navas de Tolosa: crushing defeat of the Almohads
1223Third break-up of al-Andalus
1238Abu-Abdallah Muhammad I establishes the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada. Construction of La Alhambra
1274-1344The Marinids, new power in Marrakesh, to the help of the Nasrids of Granada in their struggle for survival
Battle for the Straits of Gibraltar
1492Fall of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada
Northern Principalities (Christian Spain)
722Covadonga (Asturias): First sign of resistance to Islam
732Muslim advance in France stopped at Poitiers
c. 830First mention of the relics of Apostle St James and Santiago de Compostela as the leading pilgrimage centre of Christian Europe
946Emergence of the Kingdom of Castilla
1037Fernando I unites Castilla and León under his rule
1085Castilian Conquest of Toledo
1118Conquest of Zaragoza by Alfonso I of Aragón and introduction of the Military Order of the Templars
1137Dynastic union of Catalunya and Aragón
1139-43Portugal becomes a separate kingdom
1212-64Victory over al-Andalus at Las Navas de Tolosa
Christian expansion to Andalucía
1244Treaty of Almizra defines southern boundaries between Castilla and Aragón
1258Castilian foundation of the Military Order of Calatrava
1267Treaty of Limits between Portugal and Castilla
1311Aragonese expansion in the eastern Mediterranean: Foundation of the Duchies of Athens and Neopatria
1340-4Defeat of the Marinid Muslims at the Battle of El Salado; Alegciras for Castilla
1348-51Black Death and first anti-Jewish pogroms
1369The beginning of Trastámara rule in Castilla
1391Pogroms and mass conversions of Jews (conversos)
1412Trastámara succession to the Crown of Aragón
1415The Portuguese take Ceuta
1442-3Alfonso V of Aragón conquers Naples
1449-76Civil wars, peasaant revolts and converso massacres throughout Christian Spain
1479Dynastic Union of Castilla and Aragón
1481Establishment of the Holy Inquisition in Castilla
1492Castilla occupies the Muslim Kingdom of Granada. Expulsion of Jews who refused to become Christians. Cristóbal Colón discovers the Indes. Elio Antonio de Nebrija publishes the first Castilian Grammar.
1493Treaty of Barcelona: return of Rousillon and Cerdagne to the Crown of Aragón
1494Treaty of Tordesillas between Castilla and Aragón sharing out areas of influence overseas
1497Conquest of Melilla
1499-1506Moorish rebellions in Granada (Albaicín, Alpujarras). Victories in Italy. Casa de Contratación de Sevilla (1503). Death of Isabel I (1504). Succession problems, food shortages and plague
1508Foundation of the University of Alcalá de Henares
1512Annexation of Navarra to Castilla
1516Death of Fernando II of Aragón. Carlos of Ghent declared of age in Brussels to succeed to the joint Crowns of Castilla and Aragón.
Monarchia Hispanica: Imperial Spain
1517Arrival of Carlos I in Tordesillas (Valladolid)
1519Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor. Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation of the globe. Hernón Cortés arrives in México.
1520-1Civil wars and constitutional clashes. Villalar. French invasion of Navarra.
1525Pavia: Victory over France in Italy
1532-3Conquest of Perú by Pizarro and Almagro
1534Ignatius Loyola founds the Jesuit Order
1535Expedition against Tunis and Algiers. Foundation of Buenos Aires
1545-1564Church Council of Trent. Discovery of silver mines in Potosí (Bolivia), Zacatecas (México) and Huancavélica (quicksilver)
1547Undecisive victory over Lutherans at Muhlberg. 'Purity of Blood': Statute of Toledo Cathedral
1553Charles V's miserable and humiliating retreat before Metz
1555Peace of Augsburg with the Lutheran Princes. Abdication of the Emperor.
1557San Quintín: Crushing defeat on the French. Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)
1559-1562Spectacular autos de fé in Sevilla and Valladolid against Protestantism
1561First rumblings of opposition to Spanish rule in the Netherlands
1568-1571Morisco uprising and their expulsion from Granada
Lepanto: Naval victory against the Ottoman Turks
1580Incorporation of Portugal to the Castilian Crown
1581-1676Years of intermittent drought, famine and plague
1585Break of diplomatic relations with England
1588Failure of the Armada Invencible
1600Martín González de Cellorigo's memorial on the state of the Hispanic Monarchy
1605Publication of Cervantes' Don Quijote, Part I
1609Truce in Flanders. Moriscos expelled from Spain
1626Publication of Quevedo's El Buscón
1631-68Internal disturbances and separtist wars (Vizcaya, Catalunya, Aragón, Andalucía, Portugal, Sicily and Naples)
1639-1640Naval disasters in the Channel and Brazil
1643French decisive victory over the Army of Flanders
1648Spain forced to recognise Dutch Independence. End of Thirty Years War
1656-1668End of Spanish Hegemony in Western Europe. Treaty of the Pyrenees ratifies the victory of Louis XIV. Ten years unsucessful war of attrition to keep Portugal under Spanish rule.
Spanish Bourbons
1700Carlos II dies without issue, naming Philip of Anjoy (nephew of Louis XIV) as his heir
1701-1714Felipe V arrives in Madrid. The Emperor, England and the United Provinces reject French succession to the Spanish throne
1714Peace of Utrecht recognises Felipe V's succession in return for further territorial and commercial concessions to the members of the 'Grand Alliance'
1707-1716Administrative and political reforms. Abolition of regional charters (Decreto de Nueva Planta)
1763Peace of Paris to conclude Seven Years War with colonial losses to Spain and failure to regain Gibraltar and Menorca
1766Bread riots. Expulsion of the Jesuits (1767)
1778Free Trade Act for the American Colonies
1783Colonial gains on the Peace Treaty of Paris after the Thirteen Colonies' War of Independence. Menorca recovered by failure to take Gibraltar in 1782
1789-93Serious food crises in the north. Reactionary backlash which brings Spain into war against the French Revolution when Louis XVI was executed
1795-1807Forced to make peace with the French, Spain now sides with France against Britain and Portugal. Naval disasters: Cape San Vicente (1797) and Trafalgar (1805)
1808French military occupation of Spain. Popular rising against Napoleonic troops (2 May). Carlos IV and Fernando VII resign the Spanish Crown to Napoleon who appoints his brother José I as King of Spain
1812Cortes assembled in Cádiz draft the first liberal constitutional charter
1813French withdrawl after the victory at Vitoria of Anglo-Portuguese-Spanish combined forces
1814Fernando VII restores Royal Absolutism. War devastation and ensuing economic recession
1820Riego's Army revolt forces Fernando VII to accept the 1812 Constitution
1823French military intervention to restore Fernando VII's absolutist rule
1824Independence of the American Colonies
1833-9Death of Fernando VII without male issue. First Carlist War. Convention of Vergara enhances position of the Army
1837First disentailing legislation
1841Re-statement of Navarra's Foral Pact
1842-9The Matiners' War in Catalunya
1848First railway (Mataró-Barcelona)
1855-6Madoz' Disentailing Legislation. Railway, Banking and Finance Acts
1868-74Isabel II's fall, Serrano's Regency. Amadeo de Savoy. First Republic. Carlist revolt, Cuban insurrection and Cantonalist rising in Cartagena